Electron beam and X-ray industrial processing Gem Treatment coloration

Gem Treatment coloration
Gemstones are sometimes exposed to radiation, typically 25 MeV e-beam, to enhance or change their color.
Topaz is the most radiation treated stone. Orange natural stones become blue after exposure to radiation.

E-beam and X-ray penetration properties

10 MeV E-beam has limited penetration in product because electrons have mass as opposed to photon energy radiation of gamma and X-rays.
X-ray’s lower efficiency compared with e-beam is due to the power lost in the X-ray target during the conversion from e-beam to X-ray.